Is it mesmerism or hypnosis? Is it massage or hypno-massage?  A prominent scientist, Benjamin Franklin, challenged Dr. Mesmer's claims in the 1770s.  In 1840 Dr. Braid again challenged mesmerism and presented what is now called hypnosis to the accepting medical community. Hypnosis and massage date back to early mankind.  Often massage includes hypnosis but hypnosis does not include massage.

Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness resulting in an increased response to suggestion.  The therapist focuses on the role of subconcsious behaviors and influences of life.  Research supports the view that hypnotic communication and suggestions effectively changes aspects of the person's physiological and neurological functions.

There are many stages in hypnosis, all creating an increased awareness of the therapist by the client, in which therapeutic work is performed.  Different stages are used for different presenting conditions. states "Hypnosis (also called hypnotherapy) has been studied for a number of conditions, including state anxiety (e.g., before medical procedures or surgeries), headaches, smoking cessation, pain control, hot flashes in breast cancer survivors, and irritable bowel syndrome."

The following information is from: 

Tappan, Frances M., Patricia J. Benjamin, and Frances M. Tappan. 1998. Tappan's handbook of healing massage techniques: classic, holistic, and emerging methods. Stamford, Conn: Appleton & Lange.

Massage is a natural healing art and has been used for centuries to enhance and restore health. Massage has been passed down from generation to generation and can be categorized into four major traditions; Folk and Native Traditions, Ayurvedic Massage, Asian Bodywork Therapies, and Western Massage and Bodywork.  

Folk and Native Traditions are rubbing techniques of the tribal healers in Africa; lomi-lomi of the Hawaiians; and soft tissue techniques of traditional Hispanic Healers or curanderas.  

Ayurvedic Massage traditions originated in India and are based on a comprehensive system of beliefs about health and disease.  Its theory can be traced to an ancient text called the Vedas written in the 5th century BCE. Massage is considered essential in Ayurvedic practices to circulate Vayu, or wind, in vessels called siras to promote healthy body functioning.  The oil used in massage is chosen carefully according to the recipient's body type, the atmosphere, and the season.  Different types of bodywork are also used to balance energy in centers called chakras.  Related practices include hatha yoga, breathing exercises, cleansing, and vegetarianism.  

Asian bodywork therapy tradition includes systems of massage and bodywork with roots in Chinese medicine. These are characterized by reference to energy, chi, ki, channels called acupoints. Pressing and rubbing techniques stimulate the movement of energy through the channels to promote balance and harmony. Examples of Asian Bodywork are tuin or medical massage from China, amma and shiatsu from Japan , and various forms of acupressure.

Western Massage tradition can be traced to ancient Greek and Roman practices as developed over the centuries in Europe and North America.  The Western tradition encompasses massage as a practice for health, beauty and pleasure, and athletic performance, as well as for healing.  Its foundation is Western science, including anatomy , physiology, and pathology.  Scientific research about the efficacy of massage for healing has increased dramatically in the past few decades and is proving a solid ground for the use of massage in treatment of pathologies, as defined by Western medicine.  Refer to National Institute of Health (